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Research, projects, studies, and surveys

Internet voting


Élections Québec has put an end to its Internet voting pilot project, planned for the 2025 general municipal election.

Élections Québec has put an end to its Internet voting pilot project. This project was intended to enable voters in 21 Québec municipalities to test this voting method during the 2025 general municipal election.

In October 2023, we launched a call for tenders to acquire a voting solution. None of the three suppliers who submitted bids was able to meet our requirements. The call for tenders and the pilot project were therefore cancelled.

We’ve been interested in Internet voting for several years, with the aim of making voting more accessible. Our pilot project was aligned with various other measures designed to facilitate access to voting. Our approach was intended to be cautious and gradual. As with any pilot project, this trial was subject to an agreement between Élections Québec, the Ministère des Affaires municipales et de l’Habitation and the participating municipalities.

Five fundamental principles

Our approach was based on five fundamental principles.

  1. Accessibility
    An accessible election system is fair and open to all electors. The right to vote is exercised under consistent conditions, free from discrimination. All electors can exercise this right independently.
  2. Free exercise of the right to vote
    Electors can exercise the right to vote without influence or constraint, and with complete freedom and independence of mind, belief, opinion, and will. Internet voting did not replace other voting methods; it was an additional option.
  3. Secrecy of the vote
    Voters’ choices remain anonymous. Votes cannot be traced to an individual elector.
  4. Integrity of the process and results
    Election results properly reflect the will of the electorate. An individual elector can only cast the number of votes allowed by law. The elector’s identity is verified. His or her vote cannot be changed.
  5. Transparency of the process
    Electors and other election stakeholders can monitor the integrity of each step in the voting process. They understand election proceedings and can confirm that effective verification mechanisms are in place.

Outline of the pilot project

The pilot project was based on four main guidelines.

  1. Centralised administration
    Each municipality is responsible for its own elections. However, in order to ensure the process operated smoothly and to coordinate efforts, Élections Québec was responsible for selecting the supplier and for implementing and administering the solution. The chosen digital solution had to meet a number of security and accessibility requirements.
  2. Additional option
    Electors who could have voted by Internet would also have had access to all other voting options. They could therefore have chosen to vote by Internet or in person.
  3. Six additional voting days
    Internet voting would have been offered over two three-day voting periods. During these periods, it would have been offered continuously, 24 hours a day. It would not have been available on advance polling days or on election day.
  4. Limited electorate
    Internet voting would have been available in certain districts or boroughs of 21 municipalities with populations of 20,000 or more. Some 300,000 voters would have been able to try out Internet voting.

Participating municipalities

We would have tested Internet voting in 21 Québec municipalities. We chose municipalities with a population of 20,000 or more, spread across 15 different administrative regions of Québec and with a variety of profiles. This would have given us an overall picture of the Internet voting experience in different regions.

By offering Internet voting only in certain districts or boroughs of the participating municipalities, we wished to limit the number of electors who could use it in order to take a cautious and gradual approach.

The following municipalities agreed to participate in the project:

  • Alma
  • Baie-Comeau
  • Belœil
  • Drummondville
  • Gatineau
  • Granby
  • Joliette
  • Laval
  • Lévis
  • Magog
  • Mirabel
  • Montréal
  • Québec
  • Rimouski
  • Rouyn-Noranda
  • Sainte-Julie
  • Saint-Georges
  • Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu
  • Saint-Lazare
  • Terrebonne
  • Trois-Rivières

Call for tenders

On October 16, 2023, Élections Québec issued a call for tenders to acquire an Internet voting solution. To be selected, the solution had to meet over a hundred requirements relating to features, reliability, accessibility, and cybersecurity. This call for tenders was open to Canadian and international suppliers.

For an overview of our tender requirements, read the news item (in French) we published on this subject.

Study in the Québec context

For more information on Internet voting, see the study (PDF) we released on the topic in June 2020. It discusses voting trials conducted in Canada and elsewhere in the world. The document includes the results of the consultations we conducted in 2019, in which all Quebecers were invited to participate. A summary (PDF) of the study is also available.

Available documents

Call for expressions of interest

Documents related to a call for expressions of interest published in the fall of 2022 to survey the market for businesses specializing in Internet voting.

Documents related to the study

Documents related to the fall 2019 consultation

Documents submitted during the consultation

Most of these documents are in French.

The Charter of the French language and its regulations govern the consultation of English-language content.

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